Misteri Candi Borobudur Indonesia

Dua gelar telah melekat pada Candi Borobudur, sebagai Warisan Dunia UNESCO danGuinness World Records, serta sebagai situs arkeologi candi Budha terbesar di dunia.

Terlepas dari kemegahan dan keindahan Borobudur, lengkap dengan relief yang penuh kisah dalam agama Budha, sejumlah misteri masih melingkupi candi ini.

Awalnya, Candi Borobudur terkubur lahar yang diperkirakan berasal dari gunung Merapi. Salah satu pertanyaan yang kini belum terjawab tentang Borobudur adalah bagaimana kondisi sekitar candi ketika dibangun dan mengapa candi itu ditemukan dalam keadaan terkubur. Beberapa ahli mengatakan Borobudur awalnya berdiri dikelilingii rawa kemudian terpendam karena letusan Merapi.

Hal tersebut berdasarkan prasasti Kalkutta bertuliskan ‘Amawa’ berarti lautan susu. Kata itu yang kemudian diartikan sebagai lahar Merapi, kemungkinan Borobudur tertimbun lahar dingin Merapi.

Borobudur sebelum direstorasi.
Borobudur sebelum direstorasi.

Desa-desa sekitar Borobudur, seperti Karanganyar dan Wanurejo terdapat aktivitas warga membuat kerajinan. Selain itu, puncak watu Kendil merupakan tempat ideal untuk memandang panorama Borobudur dari atas.

Sekitar tiga ratus tahun lampau, tempat candi ini berada masih berupa hutan belukar yang oleh penduduk sekitarnya disebut Redi Borobudur.Desa-desa sekitar Borobudur, seperti Karanganyar dan Wanurejo terdapat aktivitas warga membuat kerajinan. Selain itu, puncak watu Kendil merupakan tempat ideal untuk memandang panorama Borobudur dari atas.

Untuk pertama kalinya, nama Borobudur diketahui dari naskah Negarakertagama karya Mpu Prapanca pada tahun 1365 Masehi, disebutkan tentang biara di Budur.

Kemudian pada Naskah Babad Tanah Jawi (1709-1710) ada berita tentang Mas Dana, seorang pemberontak terhadap Raja Paku Buwono I, yang tertangkap di Redi Borobudur dan dijatuhi hukuman mati. Kemudian pada tahun 1758, tercetus berita tentang seorang pangeran dari Yogyakarta, yakni Pangeran Monconagoro, yang berminat melihat arca seorang ksatria yang terkurung dalam sangkar.

Kondisi Borobudur sebelum Direstorasi
Kondisi Borobudur sebelum Direstorasi

Berdasarkan berita itu Raffles mengutus Cornelius, seorang pengagum seni dan sejarah, untuk membersihkan bukit itu.Pada tahun 1814, Thomas Stamford Raffles mendapat berita dari bawahannya tentang adanya bukit yang dipenuhi dengan batu-batu berukir.

Pada tahun 1814 pula, atas jasa Gubernur Jenderal Britania Raya, Thomas Stamford Rafffles, candi yang selama berabad-abad terkubur di bawah gundukan tanah, menjadi serupa bukit penuh semak belukar dan ditumbuhi pohon, mulai jadi perhatian pemerintah kolonial.

Setelah dibersihkan selama dua bulan dengan bantuan 200 orang penduduk, bangunan candi semakin jelas dan pemugaran dilanjutkan pada 1825. Pada 1834, Residen Kedu membersihkan candi lagi, dan tahun 1842 stupa candi ditinjau untuk penelitian lebih lanjut.

Raffles juga yang pertama kali menuliskan nama “Borobudur” dalam bukunya, History of Java. Namun tak jelas dari mana asal mula nama itu.

Borobudur_Temple-585x262

Borobudur yang misterius itu diakui oleh direktur Utama Taman Wisata Candi (TWC) Borobudur Prambanan Ratu Boko (Persero), Purnomo Siswoprasetjo.

Salah satunya, bagaimana cara Borobudur itu dibangun. Dari mana asal batu-batu besar material candi dan teknologi apa yang digunakan untuk mengangkat dan menyusunnya dengan presisi dan desain arsitektur yang mengagumkan.

“Apakah batu itu berasal dari Gunung Merapi, terus bagaimana membawanya dari Merapi menuju lokasi candi masih misteri,” kata Purnomo, 2012. Tak hanya asal batu, di mana pembuat Borobudur mengukir dan memahat batu juga masih belum diketahui. Para arkeolog masih mencari dimana “bengkel” para ahli-ahli seniman tersebut.

Borobudur, disinyalir dibangun untuk melambangkan bunga teratai yang mengapung di atas permukaan danau.
Borobudur, disinyalir dibangun untuk melambangkan bunga teratai yang mengapung di atas permukaan danau.

“Mengukir dan memahat batu sedemikian besar ukurannya dan jumlahnya banyak, belum diketahui di mana tempatnya,” terang dia.

Letak Borobudur yang tak biasa, berada di atas bukit, dikelilingi dua pasang gunung kembar — Sindoro-Sumbing dan Merbabu-Merapi, sementara candi lain dibangun di tanah datar juga menjadi teka-teki yang belum terjawab.

Pada tahun 1931, seniman dan pakar arsitektur Hindu Buddha, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, mengajukan teori bahwa Daratan Kedu — lokasi Borobudur menurut legenda Jawa, dulunya adalah sebuah danau purba.

Borobudur dibangun melambangkan bunga teratai yang mengapung di atas permukaan danau. Namun ini baru sebuah hipotesa yang lalu menjadi perdebatan hangat di kalangan para ilmuwan saat itu.

Van Bemmelen dalam bukunya “The Geology of Indonesia” menyebutkan bahwa piroklastika Merapi pada letusan besar tahun 1006 telah menutupi danau Borobudur menjadi kering dan sekaligus menutupi candi ini hingga lenyap dari sejarah. Fakta geologi juga memberi dukungan pada pendapat itu.

“Di sekitar candi terdapat sumur yang airnya asin. Tapi yang sumurnya asin tidak di semua daerah, hanya di titik tertentu,” tutur Purnomo soal dugaan Borobudur dibangun di tengah danau purba.

Foto-3-Sunrise-Di-Candi-Borobudur
Borobudur dengan latar belakang Matahari terbit

Dia menambahkan, pertanyaan itu juga yang menarik banyak ilmuwan asing berdatangan, untuk melakukan penelitian.“Di sekitar candi terdapat sumur yang airnya asin. Tapi yang sumurnya asin tidak di semua daerah, hanya di titik tertentu,” tutur Purnomo soal dugaan Borobudur dibangun di tengah danau purba.

“Banyak para ahli dari luar negeri seperti dari Jepang yang datang ke Candi Borobudur khusus untuk meneliti danau purba itu. Mereka biasa tinggal selama satu minggu hingga dua minggu,” kata dia.

Salah satu cara untuk mengungkap misteri danau purba itu adalah dengan meneliti sungai-sungai yang berada di sekitar Borobudur, termasuk Sungai Progo dan Elo serta juga pada masyarakat yang tinggal di sekitar candi.

“Semua pertanyaan-pertanyaan itu masih tersimpan. Kita tunggu kajian dari arkeolog untuk mengungkap misteri itu,” ucap dia.

 

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