Ananda

Setelah Sang Buddha beberapa lama diam di Kapilavatthu, 80.000 orang telah ditahbiskan menjadi bhikkhu, yaitu satu orang dari setiap keluarga. Kemudian Sang Buddha dengan rombongan berangkat ke Rajagaha.

Sewaktu dalam perjalanan, Sang Buddha berhenti di hutan mangga Anupiya dan di tempat itu Beliau dikunjungi oleh Anuruddha, Bhaddiya, Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta, dan tukang pangkas rambut mereka yang bernama Upali.

Di kisahkan bahwa lima orang dari mereka dalam waktu singkat mencapai tingkat kesucian Arahat. Ananda mencapai tingkat kesucian Sotapanna dan Devadatta tidak mencapai tingkat kesucian, tetapi memperoleh kekuatan gaib yang luar biasa dan yang tertinggi yang dapat dicapai seorang manusia.

Ananda dilahirkan pada hari, bulan, dan tahun yang sama dengan Sang Buddha dan terkenal sekali karena sumbangannya untuk kemajuan dan perkembangan Buddha Dhamma.

Selama 20 tahun setelah mencapai Penerangan Agung, Sang Buddha belum mempunyai seorang pembantu tetap. Setiap hari secara bergantian bhikkhu Nagasamala, Nagita, Upavana, Sunakkhata, Sagata, Radha, dan Meghiya, dan samanera Cunda membantu dan melayani Sang Bhagava (Buddha), meskipun tidak teratur.

Pada suatu hari dalam khotbah-Nya di Rajagaha, Sang Bhagava menyinggung tentang perlunya ditunjuk seorang pembantu tetap karena merasa usia-Nya yang sudah meningkat. Semua murid utama-Nya yang terdiri dari delapan puluh Arahat, seperti Sariputta dan Mogallana, menawarkan diri untuk menjadi pembantu tetap. Tetapi semuanya ditolak. Para Arahat kemudian menganjurkan Ananda, yang selama itu diam saja, untuk memohon kepada Sang Bhagava agar dapat diterima menjadi pembantu tetap. Jawaban Ananda dalam hal ini sungguh menarik sekali. Ananda mengatakan, “Kalau Sang Bhagava memang memerlukan Ananda sebagai pembantu tetap, Sang Bhagava boleh mengatakannya.”

Kemudian Sang Buddha berkata, “Ananda, jangan membiarkan orang lain menganjurkan engkau untuk memohon pekerjaan tersebut. Atas kemauan sendiri engkau dapat menjadi pembantu tetap Sang Buddha.”

Baru setelah itulah Ananda menawarkan diri untuk menjadi pembantu tetap asal saja Sang Buddha berkenan meluluskan delapan permintaannya, yaitu untuk menolak empat hal dan meluluskan empat hal lainnya.

Empat hal yang Ananda mohon supaya ditolak adalah :

1. Apabila Sang Buddha menerima pemberian jubah yang bagus, maka jubah itu tidak boleh diberikan kepada Ananda.

2. Kalau Sang Buddha menerima hadiah, maka hadiah tersebut tidak boleh diberikan kepada Ananda.

3. Bahwa Ananda tidak boleh diminta untuk tidur di kamar pribadi Sang Buddha yang harum baunya (Gandhakuti).

4. Kalau Sang Buddha menerima undangan pribadi, maka undangan itu tidak termasuk untuk dirinya.

Ananda mengatakan kalau Sang Buddha melakukan satu dari empat hal yang tersebut di atas, maka orang akan bercerita bahwa Ananda menjadi pembantu tetap karena ingin mendapat jubah bagus, makanan enak, tempat tinggal yang menyenangkan dan agar bisa ikut serta kalau Sang Buddha mendapat undangan.

Empat hal yang Ananda mohon Sang Buddha menerimannya :

1. Kalau Ananda menerima sebuah undangan atas nama Sang Buddha, maka Sang Buddha harus memenuhinya.

2. Kalau ada orang datang dari tempat jauh, supaya ia boleh membawanya menghadap kepada Sang Buddha.

3. Setiap waktu ia diperbolehkan untuk bertanya kepada Sang Buddha, apabila ia merasa ada sesuatu yang diragu-ragukan.

4. Apa pun juga yang Sang Buddha khotbahkan sewaktu ia tidak hadir, supaya Sang Buddha bersedia mengulangnya kembali.

Kalau hal ini tidak diperkenankan, orang akan bertanya-tanya, apa sebenarnya faedah dari pengabdian tersebut. Hanya kalau delapan permohonan ini dikabulkan, ia akan mendapat kepercayaan khalayak ramai dan mereka tahu bahwa Sang Buddha mempunyai kepercayaan besar terhadap dirinya. Setelah Sang Buddha setuju dan memberikan anugerah (Vara) berupa Delapan Hak Istimewa tersebut, maka mulai hari itu Ananda resmi menjadi Buddha-Upatthaka (pembantu tetap Sang Buddha).

Selama 25 tahun lamanya Ananda melayani Sang Buddha, mengikuti-Nya sebagai sebuah bayangan, mengambilkan air, mencuci kaki-Nya, menemani kemana pun Sang Buddha pergi, membersihkan kamar-Nya dan hal-hal lain lagi.

Justru karena hubungan erat inilah, maka Ananda mempunyai kesempatan istimewa untuk mendengarkan semua khotbah Sang Buddha. Dibantu dengan ingatan kuat yang dimilikinya, maka Ananda dapat mengulang semua khotbah Sang Buddha. Karena itu Ananda juga dinamakan Bendahara Dhamma (Dhamma-bhandagarika).

Ananda mencapai tingkat Arahat tiga bulan setelah Sang Buddha mangkat, yaitu pada hari pembukaan Sidang Agung Pertama di Goa Sattapanni, kota Rajagaha yang diketuai oleh Maha Kassapa. Di sidang tersebut, Ananda mengulang khotbah-khotbah (Sutta) Sang Buddha, sedangkan Upali mengulang tata tertib (Vinaya) para bhikkhu dan bhikkhuni.

Patut pula dicatat sebagai jasa Ananda bahwa berkat sokongannya yang kuat, Putri Pajapati berhasil diterima menjadi bhikkhuni oleh Sang Buddha, yang menjadi permulaan berdirinya Sangha Bhikkhuni.

Dan Ananda jugalah, atas perintah Sang Buddha, merancang jubah bhikkhu dengan mengambil contoh sawah-sawah di Magadha.

Ananda meninggal dunia pada usia 120 tahun. Pada hari akan meninggal dunia, Ananda pergi ke tepi Sungai Rohini. yang menjadi perbatasan antara Kapilavatthu dan negara Koliya. Setelah memberikan khotbah kepada para keluarganya yang berkumpul di kedua tepi sungai, Ananda berjalan ke tengah Sungai Rohini dan di situlah dari tubuhnya keluar api yang membakar badan jasmaninya.

Keluarganya di kedua tepi sungai mengumpulkan abu sisa badan jasmaninya, dibagi dua dan kemudian mereka mendirikan dua buah stupa sebagai penghormatan kepada Ananda, satu di Kapilavatthu dan satu lagi di negara Koliya.

Seperti diketahui di halaman muka, Ananda adalah putra tunggal dari Pengeran Sukkhodana, adik Raja Suddhodana.

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