206. KURUNGA-MIGA JATAKA

Kisah seekor burung pelatuk dan seekor kura menolong teman mereka Rusa dari perangkap

“Kemarilah, Kura-kura,” dan seterusnya. Kisah ini diceritakan oleh Sang Guru ketika berada di Veḷuvana (Veluvana), tentang Devadatta.

Kabar tentang Devatta yang merencanakan kematian-Nya sampai ke telinga Sang Guru. “Para Bhikkhu,” kata Beliau, “hal ini sama persis dengan yang terjadi dahulu kala; Devadatta mencoba membunuh-Ku pada saat itu seperti yang dicobanya sekarang ini.”

Dan Beliau menceritakan kepada mereka kisah masa lampau.
____________________

[153] Dahulu kala ketika Brahmadatta adalah Raja Benares, Bodhisatta terlahir sebagai seekor Rusa Kurunga dan tinggal di dalam hutan, di suatu semak belukar dekat sebuah danau. Tidak jauh dari danau yang sama tersebut, bertengger seekor burung pelatuk di atas sebuah pohon, dan di danau itu berdiam seekor kura-kura. Mereka bertiga menjadi sahabat dan tinggal bersama dengan akrab.

Ketika seorang pemburu berkeliling di dalam hutan itu, dia melihat jejak kaki Bodhisatta yang turun menuju ke air, dan dia pun memasang perangkap dari kulit, yang kuat seperti rantai besi, kemudian pergi.

Pada penggal awal malam hari itu, Bodhisatta turun untuk minum air dan dia pun terjerat di dalam perangkap itu: dia berteriak keras dan panjang. Mendengar itu, burung pelatuk terbang ke bawah dari atas pohonnya dan kura-kura pun keluar dari dalam air, berunding tentang apa yang harus dilakukan.

Kata burung pelatuk kepada kura-kura, “Teman, kamu punya banyak gigi–gigitlah perangkap ini, sedangkan saya akan pergi dan memastikan pemburu itu tidak datang. Jika kita berusaha sedaya upaya kita, maka teman kita tidak akan kehilangan nyawanya.” Untuk membuat ini lebih jelas, dia mengucapkan bait pertama:

Kemarilah, Kura-kura,
koyaklah perangkap kulit itu dan gigitlah sampai putus,
dan pemburu itu, saya yang akan mengurusnya,
dan menjauhkannya darimu.

Kura-kura mulai menggerogoti tali kulit itu, burung pelatuk tersebut pun pergi ke tempat tinggal sang pemburu. Pada fajar hari, keluarlah si pemburu dengan pisau di tangan. Segera setelah melihat sang pemburu mulai melangkah, burung itu berteriak dan mengepakkan sayapnya kemudian menyerangnya di bagian wajah ketika dia baru keluar dari pintu depan. “Burung pembawa sial menyerangku!” pikir pemburu itu, dia pun kembali dan berbaring sebentar.

Kemudian dia bangkit lagi dan membawa pisaunya. Burung itu pun berpikir dalam hatinya, “Tadi dia keluar dari pintu depan, sekarang dia pasti akan keluar dari belakang:” dan dia pun duduk di belakang rumah. [154] Sang pemburu pun memikirkan hal yang sama, “Ketika tadi keluar dari pintu depan, saya menemui pertanda buruk, sekarang saya akan keluar dari belakang!” dan demikianlah yang dilakukannya. Tetapi burung itu berteriak kembali dan menyerang wajahnya. Mendapati dirinya kembali diserang oleh burung pertanda buruk, sang pemburu pun berseru, “Mahkluk ini tidak membiarkanku keluar!” dan berbaliklah dia, kemudian berbaring sampai matahari terbit. Ketika matahari telah terbit, dia membawa pisaunya dan mulai lagi.

Burung pelatuk segera mendatangi teman-temannya. “Si pemburu sedang menuju ke sini!” teriaknya. Waktu itu, kura-kura telah menggerogoti semua tali kulitnya, tinggal satu yang keras: gigi-giginya kelihatan seperti akan tanggal semua dan mulutnya berlumuran darah. Bodhisatta melihat pemburu itu datang seperti kilat, dengan pisau di tangan: dia pun memutuskan tali tersebut dan lari masuk ke dalam hutan, burung pelatuk terbang bertengger di atas pohonnya, tetapi kura-kura sangat lemah sehingga dia hanya terbaring di sana. Sang pemburu memasukkannya ke dalam sebuah kantung dan mengikatnya di pohon.

Bodhisatta melihat kura-kura tertangkap dan bertekad untuk menyelamatkan nyawa temannya. Maka dia membiarkan pemburu itu melihatnya dan berpura-pura seakan dia lemah. Sang pemburu melihatnya dan mengiranya lemah, dia pun mencabut pisau dan mengejarnya. Bodhisatta menjaga jaraknya dari sang pemburu dan memancingnya masuk ke dalam hutan. Ketika melihat bahwasanya mereka telah berlari jauh, dia meloloskan diri darinya dan, dengan tangkasnya dari arah lain, dia keluar mengambil kantong tersebut dengan tanduknya, melemparnya ke tanah dan mengoyaknya, kemudian membiarkan kura-kura keluar. Dan burung pelatuk pun terbang turun dari pohon.

Kemudian Bodhisatta pun berkata demikian kepada mereka, “Nyawaku telah kalian selamatkan, dan kalian telah melakukan apa yang seharusnya dilakukan sebagai sahabat. Sekarang pemburu pasti akan datang dan memburu kalian. Jadi kalian; Temanku Burung Pelatuk, pergilah ke tempat lain dengan anak-anakmu, dan Anda, Temanku Kura-kura, menyelamlah ke dalam air.” Mereka pun melakukan demikian.

Dia Yang Sempurna Kebijaksanaan-Nya mengulangi bait kedua berikut:— [155]

Kura-kura masuk ke dalam danau,
rusa masuk ke dalam hutan, dan dari pohon,
burung pelatuk membawa anak-anaknya terbang pergi.

Sang pemburu kembali dan tidak melihat salah satu pun dari mereka. Dia melihat kantongnya robek, memungutnya dan pulang ke rumah dengan sedih. Dan ketiga sahabat itu pun hidup dengan persahabatan mereka yang erat sepanjang hidup mereka, dan kemudian meninggal sesuai dengan perbuatan mereka.
____________________

Ketika mengakhiri uraian ini, Sang Guru mempertautkan kisah kelahiran mereka:—“Devadatta adalah sang pemburu, Sāriputta adalah burung pelatuk, Moggallāna adalah kura-kura, dan Aku adalah rusa.”

____________________

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