Dhammapada I : 9 & 10 – Kisah Devadatta

Suatu ketika kedua murid utama Sang Buddha; Yang Ariya Sariputta dan Yang Ariya Maha Moggallana, pergi dari Savatthi menuju Rajagaha. Di sana, orang-orang Rajagaha mengundang mereka, bersama seribu pengikut mereka, untuk menerima makan pagi.

Pada kesempatan itu seseorang menyerahkan selembar kain, seharga seratus ribu, kepada penyelenggara upacara untuk didanakan. Dia mengharapkan mereka mengatur dan menggunakan pemberiannya untuk upacara itu. Kalau masih terdapat kelebihan, diberikan kepada siapa saja dari para bhikkhu yang dianggap layak. Hal itu juga terjadi jika tidak terdapat kekurangan, maka kain tersebut akan diberikan pada salah satu dari para thera. Karena kedua murid utama mengunjungi Rajagaha, hanya pada saat-saat tertentu, maka kain itu akan diberikan pada Devadatta, yang tinggal menetap di Rajagaha. 

Devadatta segera membuat kain itu menjadi jubah-jubah dan dengan bangga ia memakainya. Kemudian seorang bhikkhu yang dapat dipercaya dari Rajagaha, datang ke Savatthi memberi hormat kepada Sang Buddha, dan menceritakan kepada-Nya tentang Devadatta dan jubah yang terbuat dari kain seharga seratus ribu. 

Sang Buddha berkata bahwa kejadian itu bukan yang pertama kali, Devadatta telah memakai jubah-jubah yang tidak patut diterimanya. Sang Buddha kemudian menghubungkannya dengan kisah berikut ini. 

Devadatta pernah menjadi pemburu gajah pada salah satu kehidupannya yang lampau. Pada waktu itu, dalam hutan tertentu, terdapat sekelompok besar gajah. Suatu hari, sang pemburu memperhatikan gajah-gajah ini berlutut kepada Paccekabuddha. Setelah mengamatinya, sang pemburu mencuri bagian paling atas dari jubah kuning, lalu menutupi badannya dan memegangnya. Kemudian dengan memegang tombak pada tangannya, dia menunggu gajah-gajah pada jalur yang biasa dilewati. Gajah-gajah datang dan menganggapnya seorang Pacekabuddha, gajah-gajah itu berlutut dengan membungkukkan badan untuk memberi hormat.

Mereka dengan mudah menjadi mangsa bagi sang pemburu. Ia bunuh gajah-gajah pada barisan terakhir satu per satu setiap harinya, dan hal itu dilakukannya hingga berhari-hari. 

Sang Bodhisatta (calon Buddha) adalah pemimpin dari kawanan gajah itu, saat mengetahui kekurangan jumlah pengikutnya, dia memutuskan untuk menyelidiki dan mengikuti kawanannya pada akhir dari barisan. Dia telah berjaga-jaga, dan oleh karena itu dapat menghindari tombak. Dia menangkap sang pemburu dengan belalainya dan melemparkan pemburu itu ke tanah. Melihat jubah kuning, dia berhenti dan menyelamatkan hidup sang pemburu. 

Sang pemburu tidak berhasil membunuh dengan menggunakan tipuan jubah kuning, dan perilaku seperti itu adalah perbuatan buruk. Sang pemburu jelas tidak berhak memakai jubah kuning. 

dhammapada10

Kemudian Sang Buddha membabarkan syair 9 dan 10 berikut ini: 

“Anikkasavo kasavam
yo vattham paridahissati
apeto damasaccena
na so kasavamarahati.

Yo ca vantakasav’assa
silesu susamahito
upeto damasaccena
sa ve kasavamarahati.”

Barang siapa yang belum bebas,
dari kekotoran-kekotoran batin.
yang tidak memiliki pengendalian diri,
serta tidak mengerti kebenaran.
sesungguhnya tidak patut,
ia mengenakan jubah kuning.

Tetapi, ia yang telah dapat,
membuang kekotoran-kekotoran batin,
teguh dalam kesusilaan.
memiliki pengendalian diri.
serta mengerti kebenaran.
maka sesungguhnya ia patut,
mengenakan jubah kuning.

Banyak para bhikkhu berhasil mencapai tingkat kesucian sotapatti, setelah khotbah Dhamma itu berakhir.

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